Dust Storms

In recent years, the frequency of dust storms has increased. In particular, desert areas are considered vulnerable to climate change and face a unique set of environmental challenges. Rising environmental degradation coupled with the increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, take an enormous toll on socioeconomic life, human development, and air quality across entire regions.
The Sahara desert is the largest source of dust in the world and thus it plays an important role in the radiative budget and climate change. Dust storms represent serious natural hazards, causing numerous negative impacts on aviation safety, health, ground transport, agriculture and climate.
The transport of Saharan dust into Europe has a clear seasonality, being more frequent from February to June, and from late autumn to early winter (Escudero et al., 2005), although dust events can be distributed throughout the year. The Mediterranean countries are mostly affected by Sahara dust episodes (Querol et al., 2009; Kallos et al., 2007). The reason for this is the low precipitation in the Mediterranean basin that favours the long residence time of PM in the atmosphere with the consequent impact on air quality (Karanasiou et al, 2012).
 
example: Iraq: Iraq is considered one of the region's most vulnerable countries to climate change and it faces a unique set of environmental challenges.
Rising environmental degradation and increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, especially Sand and Dust Storms (SDS), take an enormous toll on socio-economic life and human development across the region.
It has been recognized that climate change and environmental degradation transcend boundaries and that they can't be addressed effectively through national level interventions alone. While many challenges persist, regional governments acknowledged that addressing environmental issues, such as SDS, is also an opportunity for enhanced cooperation and for making a tangible difference to regional populations and economies. In Iraq, the Ministry of Environment recorded 122 dust-storms and 283 dusty days and sources suggest that within the next ten years, Iraq could witness 300 dust-storms per year. These projections underscore the urgent need for a concerted regional effort to address the phenomenon today (Report from UN Country Team in Iraq).
 
example Northern Africa:: on January 2015 a severe dust storm broke out in Northern Africa.

The dust plume moved rapidly north-eastwards, affecting Greece and Turkey. Ferry traffic and flights were interrupted. Turkey is strongly affected by Middle East and African dust source areas. Dust sources to the eastern Mediterranean vary throughout the year with the North Central Sahara dominating in the spring, the northeast Sahara in the summer, and the Middle East in the autumn.(Turkish State Meteorological Service. Analysis of Dust Event over Eastern Mediterranean on 1 February 2015).

 


 ALGERIA (ISO Country Code: DZA) 

 Dust severity features
 
 OSM (Highways) impacted by Dust
 
 OSM (Highways)
 
Time lapse   : 6:00 hs. to 17:00 hs. UTC. 
Minimum Area : 50.000 hectares [ minimum area impacted by Dust to produce a new Dust Severity Map ]
 
This application has been developed within the MyGEOSS project, which has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. The JRC, or as the case may be the European Commission, shall not be held liable for any direct or indirect, incidental, consequential or other damages, including but not limited to the loss of data, loss of profits, or any other financial loss arising from the use of this application, or inability to use it, even if the JRC is notified of the possibility of such damages. (read more ...) . The Web App is published under the European Union Public License (EUPL) Version 1.1
 
TERMS OF USE: THIS WORK IS LICENSED UNDER A 
 


RECOMMENDED READINGS:

  • EUMETSAT, 2012.The conversion from effective radiances to equivalent brightness temperature. Doc. N. EUM/MET/TEN/11/0569. Issue v1. Date 5 October 2012. http://www.eumetsat.int.
  • EUMETSAT: Best practices for RGB compositing of multi-spectral imagery. EUMETSAT guide.[available: http://oiswww.eumetsat.org]
  • Zhao, T.-P.; Ackerman, S.; Guo, W. Dust and Smoke Detection for Multi-Channel Imagers. Remote Sens. 2010, 2, 2347-2368.
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  • Ginoux, P., D. Garbuzov, and N. C. Hsu (2010), Identification of anthropogenic and natural dust sources using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue level 2 data, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D05204, doi:10.1029/2009JD012398.
  • Yoram J. Kaufman, Arnon Karnieli, and Didier Tanré. Detection of Dust Over Deserts Using Satellite Data in the Solar Wavelengths. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, VOL. 38, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000.
  • Martínez, M.A., J. Ruiz, M. Velázquez, E. Cuevas, G. Cuevas, Use of MSG/Seviri in the WMO Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System (SDS WAS) for Europe, North Africa and Middle East, The 2008 EUMETSAT Meteorological Satellite Conference in Darmstadt, Germany, 8-12 September 2008.
  • Jamil Amanollahi, Shahram Kboodvandpour, Ahmad Makmom Abdullah and Parinaz Rashidi. Effect of the influence of heat and moisture changes of desert area around the Euphrates on the recent dust storms in Iran using Landsat satellite images processing. International Journal of the Physical Sciences Vol. 7(5), pp. 827 - 833, 30 January, 2012.
  • Genkova I., Velden C., Shapiro M., Hsu H., Dunion J., Stettner D., “Saharan dust motion extraction from MSG-SEVIRI”. University of Wisconsin – Madison. Space Science and Engineering Center. Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies.
  • Romano F., Ricciardelli E., Cimini D., Di Paola F., Viggiano M.,“Dust Detection and Optical Depth Retrieval Using MSG-SEVIRI Data“. Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis. Atmosphere 2013, 4, 35-47; doi:10.3390/atmos4010035.
  • Klüser L., Schepanski K., Holzer-Popp T.,”Bitemporal Mineral Dust Detection from MSG-SEVIRI Observations“.
  • Klüser L., Schepanski K., “Remote sensing of mineral dust over land with MSG infrared channels: A new Bitemporal Mineral Dust Index”. Remote Sensing of Environment 113 (2009) 1853–1867.
  • Barcelona Dust Forecast Center. http://dust.aemet.es/forecast